Afghanistan, , or Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, a country in south-central Asia. It is bounded on the north by Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan; on the northeast by a tip of China and Kashmir; on the east and south by Pakistan; and on the west by Iran. Afghanistan's area is not known exactly; it is estimated at about 250,000 square miles (647,500 km2)—slightly less than that of Texas. Maximum dimensions are roughly 550 miles (890 km) north-south and 600 miles (970 km) east-west.

Facts in brief about Afghanistan
Capital: Kabul.
Official languages: Pashto (also called Pakhto) and Dari.
Official name: Da Afghanistan Enteqali Islami Daulat (in Pashto) or Daulat e Entaqali Islami Afghanistan (in Dari), both meaning Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.
Area: 251,773 mi2 (652,090 km2). Greatest distances east-west, 820 mi (1,320 km); north-south, 630 mi (1,012 km).
Elevation: Highest Nowshak, 24,557 ft (7,485 m) above sea level. Lowest In Sistan Basin, 1,640 ft (500 m) above sea level.
Population: Current estimate 32,253,000; population density, 128 per mi2 (49 per km2); distribution, 77 percent rural, 23 percent urban. 1979 census 13,051,358. 2002 official government estimate 20,291,000.
Chief products: Agriculture barley, corn, cotton, fruits, Karakul skins, mutton, nuts, rice, vegetables, wheat, wool. Manufacturing jewelry, leather goods, rugs. Mining coal, lapis lazuli, natural gas.
National anthem: “Soroud-e-Melli" ("Hymn of the People").
Flag and coat of arms: Afghanistan's flag and coat of arms were adopted in 2004. The flag has black, red, and green vertical stripes, and the coat of arms in the center. The coat of arms features a mosque (Islamic house of worship) with flags on each side, surrounded by a wreath of wheat bound by a ribbon. The coat of arms bears four Arabic inscriptions: at the top, There Is No God but Allah and Muhammad Is the Prophet of Allah; near the top, God Is Almighty; near the bottom, the Islamic year 1298 (1919 in the Gregorian calendar, the year Afghanistan became independent); and at the bottom, Afghanistan.
Money: Basic unit–afghani.