Baghdad, Iraq, the nation's capital and largest city. It is on the Tigris River in east-central Iraq, about 70 miles (110 km) from the Iranian border. Baghdad lies at the junction of several historically important trade routes in a rich agricultural area with extensive irrigation. The climate is dry, with long, hot summers and short, chilly winters.
Baghdad is Iraq's chief commercial and industrial city. It is the trading and shipping center for most of central Iraq, and its markets handle large amounts of agricultural produce. About half of Iraq's manufacturing is done in or near Baghdad. Among the traditional items produced are carpets, leather goods, textiles, and metalwares. Modern industrial products include cement and petroleum products. Many foods are processed in the city. Railways and highways link Baghdad with Basra, Iraq's chief port, and with Mosul and cities in Syria and Turkey. Baghdad's international airport is a major Middle Eastern air terminal.
Iraqi educational and cultural life centers mainly in Baghdad. Educational institutions include the University of Baghdad, Al-Mustansiriya University, and the University of Technology. The Iraq Museum, the Museum of Arab Antiquities, and the Abbasid Palace Museum have extensive exhibits.