Peshawar, Pakistan, the capital of North-West Frontier Province. It lies in a mountainous area about 700 miles (1,130 km) northeast of Karachi and 30 miles (48 km) east of the famed Khyber Pass. Because of its strategic location near the pass, Peshawar has long been an important trade center and a military post. The city produces fine handicrafts, has modern light manufacturing industries, and is served by several highways, a railway, and an airport. Located here are the University of Peshawar and the Peshawar Museum, which has an unrivaled collection of Buddhas and other religious sculptures.

Peshawar is an ancient city, dating back centuries before Christ. Successive invasions, mainly by way of the Khyber Pass, brought many and varied rulers, including Buddhist, Scythian, Hindu, Pathan, Turk, Mogul, Sikh, and British. British rule began in 1848 and ended in 1947, when Pakistan gained independence.

Population: 555,000.