Levant, a name applied to the lands of the eastern Mediterranean. The term, once widely used but now becoming obsolete, usually refers to Syria, Lebanon, and Israel. It occasionally includes adjacent countries. The word levantmeans “the East” and was probably first applied to the region by Italian traders in the 13th century. Syria and Lebanon were called the Levant States when they were French mandates.
Saudi Arabia,or Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, a country occupying most of the Arabian Peninsula in southwestern Asia.
Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq, a country in southwestern Asia. It is bounded by Turkey, Iran, the Persian Gulf, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria.