Levant, a name applied to the lands of the eastern Mediterranean. The term, once widely used but now becoming obsolete, usually refers to Syria, Lebanon, and Israel. It occasionally includes adjacent countries. The word levantmeans “the East” and was probably first applied to the region by Italian traders in the 13th century. Syria and Lebanon were called the Levant States when they were French mandates.
Lebanon, or Lebanese Republic, a country in southwestern Asia. It lies at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea, bordered by Israel and Syria, and occupies most of the area that made up ancient Phoenicia.
Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq, a country in southwestern Asia. It is bounded by Turkey, Iran, the Persian Gulf, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria.