Levant, a name applied to the lands of the eastern Mediterranean. The term, once widely used but now becoming obsolete, usually refers to Syria, Lebanon, and Israel. It occasionally includes adjacent countries. The word levantmeans “the East” and was probably first applied to the region by Italian traders in the 13th century. Syria and Lebanon were called the Levant States when they were French mandates.
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, a country of southwestern Asia. Until 1935 it was known in the West as Persia. Iran is bounded by Azerbaijan, Armenia, the Caspian Sea, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, Iraq, and Turkey.
Pakistan, or Islamic Republic of Pakistan, a country in southern Asia. It was created in 1947 by the partition of British India into India and Pakistan and consisted originally of two parts—East Pakistan on the eastern side of India and West Pakistan on the west.