Perth, Australia, the capital of the state of Western Australia. It is on the Swan River about 10 miles (16 km) northeast of Fremantle, its port on the Indian Ocean. Perth is the cultural, trade, and manufacturing center for the surrounding agricultural and mining area. Textiles, clothing, processed foods, metal products, automobiles, furniture, and cement are produced here. Perth has Roman Catholic and Anglican cathedrals. The University of Western Australia is in one of its suburbs.
Perth was settled in 1829 by James Stirling, a British sea captain who landed first at Fremantle. The two settlements, although the first on the west coast, did not begin growing until the gold rush in the late 19th century. Perth was incorporated in 1856.