Norfolk Island, an island in the South Pacific Ocean between New Zealand and New Caledonia, about 375 miles (600 km) south of the Tropic of Capricorn. It is administered by Australia. The island has an area of 14 square miles (36 km2). The climate is mild, with a mean temperature of 68° F. (20° C.). Tourism is the main source of income.
The island was discovered by Captain James Cook in 1774 and became part of New South Wales, serving as a penal colony. In 1856 the prisoners were removed, and descendants of the British sailors involved in the 1789 mutiny on H.M.S. Bounty moved from Pitcairn Island to Norfolk Island. At that time, it became a separate crown colony under the jurisdiction of New South Wales. In 1914 the island became an external territory of Australia.