Baffin Island, an island in the Arctic archipelago of Canada and a part of Nunavut. It is bordered by Baffin Bay on the east and is separated from the Canadian mainland by the Gulf of Boothia, Foxe Basin, and Hudson Strait. With an area of 195,928 square miles (507,451 km 2), Baffin is the world's fifth largest island. Glacier-capped mountains as much as 8,500 feet (2,591 m) high are along the east coast; in the southwest is low-lying, marshy tundra. Winters are long and cold, summers short and cool. Auyuittuq National Park occupies part of the island.
Baffin Island's population consists almost entirely of Inuit (Eskimos). Iqaluit, with a population of 5,236, is the principal settlement. The island was discovered by Martin Frobisher in 1576. It was named for William Baffin, who explored the area 40 years later.