Colombia, or Republic of Colombia, a country in northwestern South America. It lies on the Equator and fronts on both the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. It is bordered by Panama, Venezuela, Brazil, Peru, and Ecuador.

Facts in brief about Colombia
Capital: Bogota.
Official language: Spanish.
Area: 439,737 mi2 (1,138,914 km2). Greatest distances—northwest-southeast, 1,170 mi (1,883 km); northeast-southwest, 850 mi(1,368 km). Coastline—580 mi (933 km) along the Pacific Ocean; 710 mi(1,143 km) along the Caribbean Sea.
Elevation: Highest—Cristobal Colon, 18,947 ft (5,775 m) above sea level. Lowest—sea level, along the coasts.
Population: Current estimate—43,127,000; density, 98 per mi2 (38 per km2); distribution, 75 percent urban, 25 percent rural. 2005 census—41,242,948.
Chief products: Agriculture—bananas, beef cattle, cassava, coffee, corn, cotton, milk, potatoes, rice, sugar cane. Manufacturing—cement, chemicals, metal products, processed foods and beverages, textiles and clothing. Mining—coal, emeralds, gold, iron ore, natural gas, petroleum, salt.
Flag: Colombia's flag, adopted in 1861, has a yellow stripe for the golden New World, a red stripe for the blood shed for independence, and a blue stripe for the Atlantic Ocean (top to bottom).
Coat of arms: The coat of arms, adopted in 1834, is topped by a condor. It shows a pomegranate, horns of plenty, a liberty cap, and the Isthmus of Panama (once part of Colombia).
Money: Basic unit—Colombian peso.