Cuzco, or Cusco, Peru, the capital of Cuzco Department. It is 365 miles (585 km) southeast of Lima in a deep Andean valley, at an elevation of 11,200 feet (3,400 m). Cuzco is a trading center with textile mills and other light industries. It is noted for its many old buildings in which Inca and Spanish architecture are blended.

Cuzco was a small village when, in 1250, it was conquered by the Incas, who made it their capital. When Pizarro and his Spanish forces captured the city in 1533, they partially destroyed it. They then rebuilt, using some of the Inca foundations and walls. A Dominican convent incorporates parts of the Inca Temple of the Sun. There are a 17th-century cathedral and a university founded in 1598. Cuzco was severely damaged by earthquakes in 1650 and 1950.

Population: 302,700.