Ecuador, a country on the coast of northwestern South America. It lies on the Equator, for which the country is named. Ecuador is bounded by Colombia, Peru, and the Pacific Ocean.

Facts in brief about Ecuador
Capital: Quito.
Official language: Spanish.
Official name: Republica del Ecuador (Republic of Ecuador).
Area: 109,484 mi2 (283,561 km2). Greatest distances—north-south, 450 mi (724 km); east-west, 395 mi (636 km). Coastline—1,278 mi (2,057 km), including the Galapagos Islands.
Elevation: Highest—Chimborazo Volcano, in the Andes Mountains, 20,702 ft (6,310 m) above sea level. Lowest—sea level, along the coast.
Population: Current estimate—13,832,000; density, 126 per mi2 (49 per km2); distribution, 63 percent urban, 37 percent rural. 2001 census—12,156,608.
Chief products: Agriculture—bananas, barley, beef, cacao, coffee, corn, milk, oranges, potatoes, rice, sugar cane, wheat. Fishing—herring, mackerel, shrimp, tuna. Forestry—balsa wood. Manufacturing—chemicals, processed foods, straw hats, textiles, wood products. Mining—petroleum.
National holiday: Independence Day, August 10.
National anthem: "Salve, O Patria" ("Hail, O Fatherland").
Flag and coat of arms: The state flag of Ecuador, used by the government, has horizontal stripes of yellow, blue, and red (top to bottom) and bears the coat of arms. The civil flag, flown by the people, has no coat of arms. The coat of arms shows a condor, Chimborazo Mountain, and the first steamboat built in Ecuador.
Money: Basic unit—United States dollar. One hundred cents equal one dollar.