Lima, Peru, the capital and largest city of the nation. Lima is on the Rimac River about seven miles (11 km) east of the Pacific Ocean. (The name Limais a corruption of Rimac.) The city's seaport is Callao, at the river's mouth. Although Lima is in the tropics, its climate is temperate because of the effects of the Peru Current. It receives virtually no rain but has considerable winter fog.

Lima is located in an earthquake belt.

Modern, earthquake-resistant buildings rise above the many structures that have survived from Spanish colonial days. Remains said to be those of Francisco Pizarro, the Spanish conqueror of Peru, are in Lima's 18th-century cathedral. Lima has many diverse museums; their exhibits range from Pre-Columbian artifacts to contemporary art. The National University of San Marcos, founded in 1551, is one of the oldest universities in the Americas. Lima is Peru's chief industrial center. The city's products include steel, textiles, pharmaceuticals, and processed foods. The city is served by an international airport.

Pizarro founded Lima in 1535. It was the capital of Spanish South America until the colonies won independence in the early 19th century. In 1870 the city walls of adobe were taken down, making way for the expansion that followed. Lima grew enormously during the second half of the 20th century, causing many problems, including the growth of slums.

Population, with suburbs: 6,414,500.