Tucumán, also San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina, the capital of Tucumán province. It is in northwestern Argentina on the Salí River near the foothills of the Andes. Tucumán is the commercial and industrial center for a large irrigated region that produces mainly sugarcane. Sugar refining is the principal industry. The National University of Tucumán is here.

Tucumán was founded by Spaniards in 1565. In 1812, during the war for independence, Argentine forces defeated a royalist army here. Four years later, the Congress of the United Provinces of Río de la Plata met in what is now called the Casa Histórica and drafted the Argentine declaration of independence.

Population: 527,150.