American Geographical Society, the oldest geographical society in the United States. Its objectives are to encourage research in geography and to spread geographical knowledge. It has sponsored research projects and was associated with many early Arctic explorations. Publications include two quarterlies, Geographical Reviewand American Geographical Society—Focus.The society was founded in 1851. Membership is about 1,300. Headquarters are in New York City.
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Middle East, a term for an indefinite region centered on southwest Asia and extending into North Africa.