Alabama, one of the southeastern states of the United States. Productive farms, modern factories, and an abundant supply of water, minerals, and forests have made it one of the South's most economically progressive states. Alabama's scenic attractions include pine-forested Appalachian slopes; large, clear reservoirs; and sandy coastal beaches. A long history of settlement is evidenced by Indian burial mounds, French and Spanish forts, and restored pre-Civil War mansions.

Alabama'sAlabama's state bird is the yellowhammer.
Alabama in brief
General information
Statehood: Dec. 14, 1819, the 22nd state.
State abbreviations: Ala. (traditional); AL (postal).
State capital: Montgomery has housed the State Capitol since 1846. Earlier capitals were St. Stephens (1817-1819), Huntsville (1819-1820), Cahaba (1820-1826), and Tuscaloosa (1826-1846).
State motto: Audemus Jura Nostra Defendere (We Dare Defend Our Rights).
Popular name: The Heart of Dixie.
State song: "Alabama." Words by Julia S. Tutwiler; music by Edna Goeckel Gussen.
Symbols of Alabama
State bird: Yellowhammer.
State flower: Camellia.
State tree: Southern longleaf pine.
State flag and seal: Alabama's state flag adopted in 1895, bears a crimson cross on a white field.
State seal: The state seal, first adopted in 1819, has a map of Alabama that shows the state's rivers and bordering states. The rivers served as important shipping routes when Alabama had few good roads. Today, the rivers remain vital to the state as sources of hydroelectric power.
Land and climate
Area: 51,718 mi2 (133,950 km2), including 968 mi2 (2,507 km2) of inland water but excluding 519 mi2 (1,343 km2) of coastal water.
Elevation: Highest—Cheaha Mountain, 2,407 f. (734 m) above sea level. Lowest—sea level along the Gulf of Mexico.
Coastline: 53 m. (85 km).
Record high temperature: 112 °F (44 °C) at Centreville on Sept. 5, 1925.
Record low temperature: –27 °F (–33 °C) at New Market on Jan. 30, 1966.
Average July temperature: 80 °F (27 °C).
Average January temperature: 46 °F (8 °C).
Average yearly precipitation: 56 in (142 cm).
Population: 4,447,100.
Rank among the states: 23rd.
Density: 86 per mi2 (30 per km2), U.S. average 78 per mi2mi. (30 per km2).
Distribution: 55 percent urban, 45 percent rural.
Largest cities in Alabama: Birmingham (242,820); Montgomery (201,568); Mobile (198,915); Huntsville (158,216); Tuscaloosa (77,906); Hoover (62,742).
Chief products
Agriculture: beef cattle, broilers, cotton, eggs, greenhouse and nursery products, peanuts.
Manufacturing: chemicals, food products, paper products, primary metal products, transportation equipment.
Mining: coal, limestone, natural gas, petroleum, portland cement.
State government
Governor: 4-year term.
State senators: 35; 4-year terms.
State representatives: 105; 4-year terms.
Counties: 67.
Federal government
United States senators: 2.
United States representatives: 7.
Electoral votes: 9.
Sources of information
For information about tourism, write to: Alabama Bureau of Tourism and Travel, 401 Adams Avenue, P.O. Box 4927, Montgomery, AL 36103-4927. The Web site at also provides information.
For information on the economy, write to: Alabama Development Office, 401 Adams Avenue, Sixth Floor, Montgomery, AL 36104-4106. The state's official Web site at also provides a gateway to much information on Alabama's economy, government, and history.