Elmira, New York, the seat of Chemung County. It is on the Chemung River, 147 miles (237 km) southeast of Buffalo. Elmira's factories produce bottles, fire-fighting equipment and chemicals, office equipment and business machines, metal castings, textiles, and heating equipment.

Elmira College was founded in 1855. Elmira Reformatory, for male first offenders, is nearby. Mark Twain and his wife had a summer home near Elmira and are buried in Woodlawn Cemetery. Nearby Newtown Battlefield Reservation marks the site of the 1779 battle in which Americans under generals John Sullivan and James Clinton defeated British and Indian forces.

Settlers came in 1788 and the village of Newtown was incorporated in 1815. The name was changed to Elmira in 1828, and a city charter was obtained in 1864.

Population: 30,940.