Harlingen, Texas, a city in Cameron County. It is on the Arroyo Colorado River, 26 miles (42 km) northwest of Brownsville. Harlingen is a barge port connected with the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway and is a processing and shipping center for farm products of the Lower Rio Grande Valley. There are canneries, shrimp-processing plants, oil refineries, and chemical plants. Harlingen was founded in 1904.