New York, a state in the eastern United States. It lies immediately west of New England and is the only state that fronts on both the Atlantic Ocean and the Great Lakes. Bordering New York are the states of Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. With an area of 54,475 square miles (141,089 km2), New York ranks 27th among the states in size.

New York is often said to consist of two unlike and sometimes divergent parts—New York City plus its urban environs and the rest of the state, called upstate New York. Most New Yorkers live in the New York City area, which is one of the largest and most cosmopolitan urban centers in the world. To a considerable extent, upstate New York is rural, although it does have a number of sizable cities.

New York'sNew York's state bird is the bluebird.
New York in brief
General information
Statehood: July 26, 1788, the 11th state.
State abbreviations: N.Y. (traditional); NY (postal).
State capital: Albany, New York's capital since 1797. Kingston, Poughkeepsie, and New York City served as temporary capitals between 1777 and 1797.
State motto: Excelsior (Ever Upward).
Popular name: The Empire State.
State song: "I Love New York." Words and music by Steve Karmen.
Symbols of New York
State bird: Bluebird.
State flower: Rose.
State tree: Sugar maple.
State flag and seal: The New York coat of arms appears on both the state flag and the state seal. On the arms, a shield displays a New York landscape with ships on a river, mountains, and a rising sun. A bald eagle perches on a globe above the shield. A figure representing Liberty stands on the left. The figure on the right symbolizes Justice. The flag was adopted in 1909, and the seal was adopted in 1882.
Land and climate
Area: 49,112 mi2 (127,200 km2), including 1,888 mi2 (4,891 km2) of inland water but excluding 4,877 mi2 (12,632 km2) of Great Lakes and coastal water.
Elevation: Highest--Mount Marcy, 5,344 ft (1,629 m) above sea level. Lowest--sea level along the Atlantic Ocean.
Coastline: 127 mi (204 km).
Record high temperature: 108 °F (42 °C) at Troy on July 22, 1926.
Record low temperature: –52 °F (–47 °C) at Old Forge on Feb. 18, 1979.
Average July temperature: 69 °F (21 °C).
Average January temperature: 21 °F (–6 °C).
Average yearly precipitation: 39 in (99 cm).
Population: 18,976,457.
Rank among the states: 3rd.
Density: 386 per mi2 (149 per km2), U.S. average 78 per mi2 (30 per km2).
Distribution: 87 percent urban, 13 percent rural.
Largest cities in New York: New York City (8,008,278); Buffalo (292,648); Rochester (219,773); Yonkers (196,086); Syracuse (147,306); Albany (95,658).
Chief products
Agriculture: apples, beef cattle, greenhouse and nursery products, milk.
Manufacturing: chemicals, clothing, computer and electronic products, fabricated metals, food products, machinery, transportation equipment.
Mining: crushed stone, natural gas, salt, sand and gravel.
State government
Governor: 4-year term.
State senators: 62; 2-year terms.
State representatives: 150; 2-year terms.
Counties: 62.
Federal government
United States senators: 2.
United States representatives: 29.
Electoral votes: 31.
Sources of information
For information about tourism, write to: New York State Division of Tourism, P.O. Box 2603, Albany, NY 12240-0603. The Web site at also provides information.
For information on the economy, write to: New York State Department of Economic Development, 30 S. Pearl Street, Albany, NY 12245.
The state's official Web site at also provides a gateway to much information on New York's economy, government, and history.