Newark, New Jersey, the seat of Essex County and the largest city in the state. The city is a port on Newark Bay at the mouth of the Passaic River, 10 miles (16 km) southwest of downtown New York City.
Newark has connections with New York City by tunnel. Newark's port is one of the most efficient in the country. The airport and the port are operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.
Newark is the industrial center of an industrial state. Products include electrical equipment, machinery, chemicals, paints, plastics, clothing, leather goods, bread, processed meats, beer and ale, and jewelry. The state's major banks and some of the country's largest insurance companies have their home offices in Newark. Many state and federal government agencies have offices in the city.
Institutions of higher learning include the Newark campuses of Rutgers and Seton Hall universities; the New Jersey Institute of Technology; and the College of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. Newark's public library was developed by John Cotton Dana, a pioneer in providing library service to the public. Dana also founded the Newark Museum, which is devoted to art, science, history, and technology. The New Jersey Historical Society maintains a museum and reference library. The New Jersey Performing Arts Center is the home of the New Jersey State Opera and the New Jersey Symphony Orchestra.
The Newark central business district has three parks—Military, Washington, and Lincoln. In Military Park is Gutzon Borglum's sculpture group Wars of America. Washington Park contains many statues of distinguished men. Borglum's Seated Lincoln is in Essex County Courthouse.