Vermont, one of the New England states of the United States, popularly called the Green Mountain State. It is bordered by New Hampshire, Massachusetts. New York, and Quebec, Canada; it is the only state in New England that does not lie on the Atlantic Ocean. In area and population Vermont is one of the smallest states in the nation.

With little urban development or industrialization, Vermont has a rustic charm reminiscent of an earlier age. It is especially known for its mountains, its clean air and water, and its unspoiled scenery.

Like Texas, Vermont was once an independent republic (1777–91). It was the first state admitted to the Union after the Revolution, the first to forbid slavery, and the first to adopt universal male suffrage.

Vermont'sVermont's state bird is the hermit thrush.
Vermont in brief
General information
Statehood: March 4, 1791, the 14th state.
State abbreviations: Vt. (traditional); VT (postal).
State capital: Montpelier, the capital of Vermont since 1805. Many towns served as temporary capitals between 1777 and 1805.
State motto: Freedom and Unity.
Popular name: The Green Mountain States.
State song: "Hail, Vermont!" Words and music by Josephine Hovey Perry.
Symbols of Vermont
State bird: Hermit thrush.
State flower: Red clover.
State tree: Sugar maple.
State flag and seal: Vermont's state flag, adopted in 1923, bears the Vermont coat of arms on a blue background. The coat of arms shows a large pine tree, three sheaves of grain, and a cow. Mountains rise in the background. On the state seal, adopted in 1779, a pine tree with 14 branches represents the 13 original states and Vermont. A row of wooded hills cuts across the center. Wavy lines at the top and bottom represent sky and water. Sheaves of grain and a cow symbolize agriculture.
Land and climate
Area: 9,615 mi2 (24,903 km2), including 366 mi2 (947 km2) of inland water.
Elevation: Highest--Mount Mansfield, 4,393 ft (1,339 m) above sea level. Lowest--Lake Champlain in Franklin County, 95 ft (29 m) above sea level.
Record high temperature: 105 degrees F (41 degrees C) at Vernon on July 4, 1911.
Record low temperature: –50 degrees F (-46 degrees C) at Bloomfield on Dec. 30, 1933.
Average July temperature: 68 degrees F (20 degrees C).
Average January temperature: 17 degrees F (–8 degrees C).
Average yearly precipitation: 39 in (99 cm).
Population: 608,827.
Rank among the states: 49th.
Density: 63 per mi2 (24 per km2), U.S. average 78 per mi2 (30 per km2).
Distribution: 62 percent rural, 38 percent urban.
Largest cities in Vermont: Burlington (38,889); Essex (18,626); Rutland (17,292); Colchester (16,986); South Burlington (15,814); Bennington (15,737).
Chief products
Agriculture: apples, beef cattle, greenhouse and nursery products, hay, maple syrup, milk.
Manufacturing: electronic equipment, fabricated metal products, food products, machinery, nonmetallic mineral products.
Mining: granite, limestone, marble, talc.
State government
Governor: 2-year term.
State senators: 30; 2-year terms.
State representatives: 150; 2-year terms.
Towns: 237 (towns, rather than counties, are the main units of local government in Vermont).
Federal government
United States senators: 2.
United States representatives: 1.
Electoral votes: 3.
Sources of information
For information about tourism, write to Vermont Department of Tourism and Marketing, 6 Baldwin Street, Drawer 33, Montpelier, VT 05633-1301. The Web site at also provides information.
For information on the economy, write to: Agency of Commerce and Community Development, National Life Building, 6th Floor North, Montpelier, VT 05620-0501.
The state’s official Web site at also provides a gateway to much information on Vermont’s economy, government, and history.